Peanut Farming process: Peanut (Groundnut) is an important oilseed crop of India. Groundnut is a major part of the human diet, about 75 to 85 percent of Peanut production in India is used in the form of oil. So let’s know that Mungfali Ki Kheti kayse Kare | How to do Groundnut Farming.
Peanut cultivation is one of the important crops among oilseed crops. Which is the main crop grown in different states of India. It is grown the most in the states of Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. In other states like Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Punjab, it is also considered a very important crop. In Rajasthan, it is cultivated in an area of about 3.47 lakh hectares, which produces about 6.81 lakh tonnes. Its average yield is 1963 kg. per hectare (2010-11).
The risk of pests and diseases is much less in Zaid than in Kharif crop. Mungfali is a crop grown in both Kharif and Zaid seasons. It is grown in more areas in many places. Like – Jhansi, Sitapur, Unnao, Bareilly, Hardoi, Badaun, Etah, Mainpuri, Farrukhabad, Moradabad, Kheri, Saharanpur, etc. Peanuts contain 45 to 55 percent protein, 28 to 30 percent carbohydrate. Vitamin B, Vitamin-C, Calcium and Magnesium, Zinc Phosphorous, Potash, etc. Mineral elements are found in abundance in it. Which is very helpful in keeping the human body healthy.
Peanut Farming process | Mungfali Ki Kheti | Groundnut Farming
Groundnut can be cultivated in different types of soils, yet for its good preparation, loamy soil containing drained calcium and organic matter is best. The pH value of the soil is 6.0 to 8.0. In the month of May, do one plowing of the field with a soil-turning plow and run harrows 2-3 times so that the soil becomes friable. After this, level the field by running a pat, so that the moisture can be stored. At the time of the final preparation of the field, gypsum at the rate of 2.5 quintals per hectare should be used.
Species of Peanut
Major Varieties for Groundnut/Peanut Crop – ICGS-1, R-9251, TG37, R-8808, ICGS-44, DH-86. Peanut Farming process
Preparation of land for Peanut farming
Well-drained, friable loam and sandy loam land are best for groundnut cultivation. While cultivating Peanut, the preparation of the field should be done well. First of all, do deep plowing of the field, after that two or three times by plowing the country plow or cultivator, make it friable.
After the last plowing, make the field level by staking it well. So that there is convenience in applying water and water can reach everywhere well. At the time of final preparation of the field, use gypsum at the rate of 2.5 quintals per hectare. Quinalphos 1.5 percent 25 kg. At the rate of per hectare should be mixed with the soil with the last plowing.
Peanut Farming process
Seed and Sowing for Groundnut farming
Groundnut is usually sown with the onset of monsoon. In North India, this time is usually between 15 June to 15 July. Seed quantity 75-80 kg for low spreading varieties. 60-70 kg per hectare and for spreading varieties. Healthy beans should be selected or certified seeds should be sown for extracting seeds for sowing. The kernel should be separated from the beans 10-15 days before sowing.
Before sowing the seed should be treated with 3 gm Thiram or 2 gm Mancozeb or Carbendizim drug per kg of seed. Due to this, the germination of seeds is good and various types of diseases can be saved from the early stage. 12.50 ml of Chloropyriphos (20 EC) for protection against termites and white braid.
Seed treatment per kg should be done before sowing. Groundnut should be sown in a row. Row to row distance of 30 cms for clustered/short spreading varieties. And for spreading varieties keep 45 cm. Plant to plant distance of 15 cm. m. Should keep Sowing can be done with the back of a plow, by hand, or by a seed drill. According to the type of soil and moisture content, the seed should be planted in the ground by 5-6 cm.
Prevention of diseases of peanut cultivation
Peanut crop is mainly prone to diseases like tikka, collar, stem rot, and rosette. If symptoms of tikka are visible, for its prevention, distance M-45 should be mixed with 2 g/Lit of water and sprayed well. Repeat this process again within 10-12 days of spraying and to prevent roseate virus disease, spray the crop with an imidacloprid solution of 0.5 ml/liter of water.
Roseate is a virus-borne disease of Peanut, due to its effect the plants remain very dwarf and the color of the tissues in the leaves starts turning yellow. This disease is usually spread by the virus-carrying fungus, so to prevent the spread of this disease, the plants should be uprooted and thrown away as soon as they appear in the field. To control the spread of this disease, imidacloprid 1 ml. It should be dissolved in 3 liters of water and sprayed.
It is a serious disease of this crop. Initially, small circular spots of dark brown color appear on the upper surface of the lower leaves of the plant, these spots later spread to the upper leaves and stems also. In the acute stage of infection, the leaves dry up and fall and only the stem remains. This reduces the yield of the crop to a great extent.
The disease is caused by a fungus called Cercospora personata or Cercospora aradicola (सर्कोस्पोरा परसोनेटा या सर्केास्पोरा अरैडिकोला). The remains of diseased plants left in the soil spread it to the next year as well. For its prevention, dithane M-45 by dissolving 2 kg in one thousand liters of water and spraying it at the rate of two to three per hectare at an interval of ten days. Needed.
Pest control Peanut Farming process
Romain caterpillar kills the plants by eating the leaves. Full-grown caterpillars have thick brown hairs. If they are not controlled as soon as their attack starts, then they can cause great damage to the crop. For its prevention, it is necessary that as soon as this insect is seen in the field, its eggs or small caterpillar-laden plants or leaves should be cut and either buried in the ground or they should be buried with grass. To be burnt For its prevention, spray Quinalphos 1 liter insecticide solution in 700-800 liters of water per hectare.
There are usually small brown insects. And collect in large numbers and suck the sap of the plants. It also helps in the spread of virus-borne diseases. For its control Imidaclorpid, 1 ml is applied to control the spread of this disease. should be dissolved in 1 liter of water and sprayed
In the case of leaf miner infestation, yellow spots appear on the leaves. Its girders keep eating the green part inside the leaves and white stripes are formed on the leaves. Its pupa is brownish-red in color, it can cause great damage to the crop. The female insect is small and brightly colored and lays eggs on soft stems. For its prevention, imidacloprid 1 ml. The solution should be sprayed in 1 liter of water.
Irrigation of Groundnut cultivation
Groundnut being a Kharif crop, irrigation is often not required in it. Giving irrigation normally depends on the distribution of rainfall, if the crop is to be sown early. If there is a drought condition at the time of flowering of plants, then irrigation is necessary at that time. Sufficient moisture is required in the soil even at the time of pod development and kernel formation. So that the beans become big and very full. Therefore, irrigation may be required depending on the amount of rainfall.
Peanut Farming process
The development of peanut pods takes place inside the ground. Therefore, if the field remains waterlogged for a long time, the development and yield of beans can be adversely affected. Therefore, if the field is not level at the time of sowing, then light drains should be made at a distance of a few meters in between. Due to this, the rainwater does not stagnate in the field and unnecessary extra water gets out as soon as it rains.
Fertilizers are used according to the type of land, its fertility, type of groundnut, irrigation facility, etc. Peanut, being an oilseed crop of the pulse family, normally does not require nitrogenous fertilizers, yet 15-20 kg nitrogen and 50-60 kg should be used for initial growth in light soils.
It is beneficial to give phosphorus on the basis of per hectare. The full amount of fertilizers should be added to the soil at the time of field preparation. If compost or dung manure is available, then 20-25 days before sowing it should be scattered at 5 to 10 tonnes per hectare in the field and mixed well. For higher production, 250 kg gypsum per hectare should be mixed in the land before final plowing.
Use of neem oil
The use of neem oil has a good effect on the production of groundnut farming. 400 kg at the time of the last plowing. Neem Khal should be given on a per hectare basis. Termites are controlled by neem cake and plants get the supply of nitrogen elements. The use of neem oil seed increases the yield from 16 to 18 percent, and the oil percentage also increases due to the thickening of the grain. In some places of South India, gypsum is also used for higher production.
Weeding and weed control
Weeding, hoeing, and weed control are of great importance in the production of this crop. Peanut plants are small. Therefore, during the rainy season, they are usually covered with weeds. These weeds do not allow plants to grow. To avoid weeds, at least two weeding and hoeing are required.
The first time at the time of flowering, the second time after 2-3 weeks while the pegs (nerves) start going into the ground. After this weeding should not be done. If there is more problem of weeds, then 2 days after sowing, 3 liters of Pendimethalin weedicide should be mixed with 500 liters of water and sprayed per hectare.
Crop circle of peanut
In non-irrigated areas, only moderately spreading varieties are grown, which are often late maturing. Normally one crop is taken in such a condition. But with the use of clustered and early maturing varieties, it is now becoming more possible to grow two crops simultaneously. In irrigated areas, early sown crops can be followed by irrigation, especially late sown varieties.
The selection of the field is important for the production of groundnut seeds. For groundnut, such a field should be chosen in which groundnut has not been cultivated for 2-3 consecutive years, there should be good management of water in the land. There should be no groundnut crop at a distance of 15-20 meters around the field selected for seed production of groundnut farming.
For seed production, all necessary agricultural activities like preparation of the field, the good seed for sowing, sowing by advanced method, proper use of manure and fertilizers, proper control of weeds and insects and diseases are necessary. It is necessary to remove undesirable plants before flowering and before harvesting.
When the crop is well-ripened, the crop should be cut and dried leaving about 10 meters of space around the field. The grain should not contain more than 8-10 percent moisture. After grading the peanut farming process, it should be treated with insect and fungicidal chemicals and filled in sacks. The seed thus produced can be used for sowing of the next year.
Harvesting and threshing of Peanuts/Groundnuts
Generally, when the plants turn yellow and most of the lower leaves start falling, they should be harvested immediately. The beans should be dried thoroughly for about a week before separating them from the plants. The beans should be dried until the moisture content in them is less than 10 percent because storing the beans with high moisture can cause outbreaks of diseases especially white mold.
Yield and economic benefits
By using advanced methods, the average yield of 20-25 quintals per hectare can be obtained in irrigated areas of groundnut. Its cultivation costs about 25-30 thousand rupees per hectare. If the price of groundnut/peanut is Rs 30 per kg, a net profit of Rs 35 to 40 thousand per hectare can be obtained.